**PAIRWISE.** An early use of this term is in Chowla, S.; Erdoes,
Pal; Straus, E.G. *On the maximal number of pairwise orthogonal latin
squares of a given order,* Canadian J. Math. 12, 204-208 (1960).

**PANGEOMETRY** is the term Nicholas Lobachevsky (1796-1856) gave
to his non-Euclidea geometry (Schwartzman, p. 157).

**PARABOLA** was probably coined by Apollonius, who, according to
Pappus, had terms for all three conic sections. Michael N. Fried says there
are two known occasions where Archimedes used the terms "parabola" and
"ellipse," but that "these are, most likely, later interpolations rather
than Archimedes own terminology." Parabola is dated 1579 in MWCD10.

**PARABOLIC GEOMETRY.** See *hyperbolic geometry.*

**PARACOMPACT.** The term and the concept are due to J. Dieudonné (1906-1992),
who introduced them in *Une généralisation des espaces compacts*,
J. Math. Pures Appl., 23 (1944) pp. 65-76. A topological space *X*
is paracompact if (i) *X* is a Hausdorff space, and (ii) every open
cover of *X* has an open refinement that covers *X* and which
is locally finite. The usefulness of the concept comes almost entirely
from condition (ii), while the role of condition (i) has been somewhat
controversial. Thus, in his book *General Topology* (1955), John Kelley
(p. 156) replaces (i) by the condition that *X* be regular (and his
definition of regularity does not include the Hausdorff separation axiom),
while some other authors do not even mention (i) in defining paracompactness.
In any case, however, it is possible to state this important fact (conjectured
by Dieudonné in the paper above): every metric space is paracompact. This
was proved by A. H. Stone in *Paracompactness and product spaces*,
Bull. Amer. Math. Soc., 54 (1948) 977-982. [This entry was contributed
by Carlos César de Araújo.]

The term **PARACONSISTENT LOGIC** was coined in 1976 by the Peruvian
philosopher Francisco Miró Quesada, during the Terceiro Congresso Latino
Americano. This branch of mathematics was created by Professor Newton Carneiro
Affonso da Costa, who referred to it as "inconsistent formal systems" in
his 1964 thesis, which used that term as its title. [See the introduction
of the work "Sistemas Formais Inconsistentes", Newton C. A. da Costa, Editora
da UFPr, Curitiba, 1993, p. viii. This work is a reprint of the Prof. Newton's
original 1964 thesis, the initial landmark of all studies in the matter.
This information was provided by Manoel de Campos Almeida.]

**PARALLEL** appears in English in 1549 in *Complaynt of Scotlande,*
vi. 47: "Cosmaghraphie ... sal delcair the eleuatione of the polis, and
the lynis parallelis, and the meridian circlis" (OED2).

**PARALLELEPIPED.** According to Smith (vol. 2, page 292), "Although
it is a word that would naturally be used by Greek writers, it is not found
before the time of Euclid. It appears in the *Elements* (XI, 25) without
definition, in the form of 'parallelepipedal solid,' the meaning being
left to be inferred from that of the word 'parallelogrammic' as given in
Book I."

*Parallelipipedon* appears in English in 1570 in Sir Henry Billingsley's
translation of Euclid's *Elements.*

The first citation in the OED2 with the shortened spelling *parallelepiped*
is Walter Charleton (1619-1707), *Chorea gigantum, or, The most famous
antiquity of Great-Britain, vulgarly called Stone-heng : standing on Salisbury
Plain, restored to the Danes,* London : Printed for Henry Herringman,
1663.

Charles Hutton's *Dictionary* (1795) shows *parallelopiped*
and *parallelopipedon.*

In Noah Webster's *A compendious dictionary of the English language*
(1806) the word is spelled *parallelopiped.*

*Mathematical Dictionary and Cyclopedia of Mathematical Science*
(1855, reprinted 1883) has *parallelopipedon* [Joe Albree].

U. S. dictionaries show the pronunciation with the stress on the penult, but some also show a second pronunciation with the stress on the antepenult.

**PARALLELOGRAM** appears in English in 1570 in Sir Henry Billingsley's
translation of Euclid's *Elements* (OED2).

The term **PARAMETER** was introduced by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
(1646-1716) (Kline, page 340). He used the term in 1692 in *Acta Eruditorum
11* (Struik, page 272).

**PARAMETRIC EQUATION.** "Mono-parametric equation" occurs in "On
the Geometry of Planes in a Parabolic Space of Four Dimensions," Irving
Stringham, *Transactions of the American Mathematical Society,* Vol.
2, No. 2 (Apr., 1901).

*Parametric equation* is found in "Covariants of Systems of Linear
Differential Equations and Applications to the Theory of Ruled Surfaces,"
E. J. Wilczynski, *Transactions of the American Mathematical Society,*
Vol. 3, No. 4. (Oct., 1902).

**PARTIAL DERIVATIVE.** Partial derivatives appear in the writings
of Newton and Leibniz. An early use of the term *partial derivative*
is in English in an 1834 paper by Sir William Rowan Hamilton [James A.
Landau]. Jacobi used the term *differentialia partialia* in 1841 in
"De determinantibus functionalibus" (Cajori vol. 2, page 236)

The term **PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION** was used in 1770 by Antoine-Nicolas
Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794) in the title "Memoire sur les
Equations aux différence partielles," which was published in *Histoire
de L'Academie Royale des Sciences* (1773).

The term **PARTIAL FRACTION** presumably occurs *Traité élémentaire
Calcul differéntiel et intégral* by Sylvestre Francois Lacroix, since
the OED2 shows its use in English in 1816 in Peacock and Herschel's translation
of of this work: "The general method of integrating differentials of the
above form, consists in decomposing them into others, whose denominators
are more simple, which we designate by the name of partial fractions."

**PARTIAL PRODUCT** is found in an 1844 paper by Sir William Rowan
Hamilton [James A. Landau].

The term **PASCAL'S TRIANGLE** appears in 1886 in *Algebra*
by George Chrystal (1851-1911).

Blaise Pascal used the term "arithmetical triangle" (*triangle arithmetique*).
In Italy it is called Tartaglia's triangle and in China it is called Yang
Hui's triangle.

The term **PEANO-GOSPER CURVE** was coined by Mandelbrot in 1977.

**PEARLS OF SLUZE.** Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) named the family of
curves to honor Baron René François de Sluze, who studied the curves (*Encyclopaedia
Britannica* article: "Geometry").

The term **PEDAL CURVES** is due to Olry Terquem (1782-1862) (Cajori
1919, page 228).

**PELL'S EQUATION** was so named by Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) in
a paper of 1732-1733, even though Pell had only copied the equation from
Fermat's letters (Burton, page 504).

**PENCIL OF LINES.** Desargues coined the term *ordonnance de lignes,*
which is translated *an order of lines* or *a pencil of lines*
[James A. Landau].

**PENTAGON** appears in English in 1570 in Sir Henry Billingsley's
translation of Euclid's *Elements.*

**PENTAGRAM** appears in English in 1833 in *Fraser's Magazine*
(OED2).

The term **PENTOMINO** was coined by Solomon W. Golomb, who used
the term in a 1953 talk to the Harvard Math Club. According to an Internet
web page, the term was trademarked in 1975. (The first known pentomino
problem is found in *Canterbury Puzzles* in 1907.)

**PERCENTILE** was used by Francis Galton in the phrase "the 50th
per-centile" in February 1885 in the *Journal of the Anthropological
Institute* (OED2).

**PERFECT NUMBER.** According to Smith (vol. 2, page 21), the Pythagoreans
used this term in another sense, because apparently 10 was considered by
them to be a perfect number.

Proposition 36 of Book IX of Euclid's *Elements* is: "If as many
numbers as we please beginning from a unit be set out continuously in double
proportion, until the sum of all becomes a prime, and if the sum multiplied
into the last make some number, the product will be perfect."

The term was used by Nicomachus around A. D. 100 in *Introductio Arithmetica*
(Burton, page 475). One translation is:

Among simple even numbers, some are superabundant, others are deficient: these two classes are as two extremes opposed to one another; as for those that occupy the middle position between the two, they are said to be perfect.Nichomachus identified 6, 28, 496, and 8128 as perfect numbers.

**PERMANENT** (of a square matrix). In a paper written with M. Marcus
("Permanents", Amer. Math. Monthly, 1965, p. 577) Henryk Minc, one of the
great authorities in permanents, wrote:

The name "permanent" seems to have originated in Cauchy's memoir of 1812 [B 3]. Cauchy's "fonctions symétriques permanentes" designate any symmetric function. Some of these, however, were permanents in the sense of the definition (1.1). (...) As far as we are aware the name "permanent" as defined in (1.1) was introduced by Muir [B 38].The paper by T. Muir is "On a class of permanent symmetric functions", Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 11 (1882) 409-418. [B3] is "Mémoire sur les fonctions Qui ne peuvent obtenir que deux valeurs égales et de signes contraires par suite des transpositions opérées entre les variables qu'elles renferment", J. de l'Éc. Polyt., 10 (1812) 29-112. According to J. H. van Lint in "The van der Waerden Conjecture: Two Proofs in One Year",

In his book Permanents [9] H. Minc mentions that the name permanent is essentially due to Cauchy (1812) although the word as such was first used by Muir in 1882. Nevertheless a referee of one of Minc's earlier papers admonished him for inventing this ludicrous name![This entry was contributed by Carlos César de Araújo.]

**PERMUTATION** first appears in print with its present meaning in
*Ars
Conjectandi* by Jacques Bernoulli: "*De Permutationibus. Permutationes*
rerum voco variationes..." (Smith vol. 2, page 528).

Earlier, Leibniz had used the term *variationes* and Wallis had
adopted *alternationes* (Smith vol. 2, page 528).

The term **PERMUTATION GROUP** was coined by Galois (DSB, article:
"Lagrange").

**PERPENDICULAR** was used in English by Chaucer about 1391 in *A
Treatise on the Astrolabe.* The term is used as a geometry term in 1570
in Sir Henry Billingsley's translation of Euclid's *Elements.*

**PIECEWISE** is found in 1933 in the phrase "vectors which are only
piecewise differentiable" in *Vector Analysis* by H. B. Phillips (OED2).

**PIE CHART** is found in 1922 in A. C. Haskell, *Graphic Charts
in Business* XIV (OED2).

**PIGEONHOLE PRINCIPLE.** The principle itself is attributed to Dirichlet
in 1834, although he apparently used the term *Schubfachprinzip.*

The French term is "le principe des tiroirs de Dirichlet," which can be translated "the principle of the drawers of Dirichlet."

*Pigeonhole principle* occurs in English in E. C. Milner and R.
Rado, "The pigeon-hole principle for ordinal numbers," *Proc. Lond. Math.
Soc.,* III. Ser. 15, 750-768 (1965).

An Internet advertisement for *The Mathematics of Choice: How to Count
Without Counting* by Ivan Niven (1915-1999) (paperbound, 1965) includes
the pigeonhole principle as one of the topics covered in the book.

**PLACE VALUE** appears in 1911 in *The Hindu-Arabic Numerals*
by David Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski (OED2).

The word **PLAGIOGRAPH** was coined by James Joseph Sylvester (DSB).

**PLANE GEOMETRY** appears in English in a letter from John Collins
to Oldenburg for Tschirnhaus written in May 1676: "...Mechanicall tentative
Constructions performed by Plaine Geometry are much to be preferred..."
[James A. Landau].

**PLATONISM.** In the specific sense now widely used in discussions
on the foundations of mathematics, this term was introduced by Paul Bernays
(1888-1977) in *Sur lê platonisme dans les mathematiques*, Einseignement
Math., 34 (1935-1936), 52-69. We quote the relevant passage:

If we compare Hilbert's axiom system to Euclid's (...), we notice that Euclid speaks of figures to be constructed, whereas, for Hilbert, systems of points, straight lines, and planes exist from the outset. (...) This example shows already that the tendency (...) consists in viewing the objects as cut off from all links with the reflecting subject. Since this tendency asserted itself especially in the philosophy of Plato, allow me to call it "platonism".(The translation from the French is by Charles Parsons. This entry was contributed by Carlos César de Araújo.)

**PLUQUATERNION** was coined by Thomas Kirkman (1806-1895), as he
attempted to extend further the notion of quaternions.

**PLUS** and **MINUS.** From the OED2:

The quasi-prepositional use (sense I), from which all the other English uses have been developed, did not exist in Latin of any period. It probably originated in the commercial langauge of the Middle Ages. In Germany, and perhaps in other countries, the Latin wordsplusandminuswere used by merchants to mark an excess or deficiency in weight or measure, the amount of which was appended in figures. The earliest known examples of the modern sense ofminusare German, of about the same date as our oldest quotation. ... In a somewhat different sense,plusandminushad been employed in 1202 by Leonardo of Pisa for the excess and deficiency in the results of the two suppositions in the Rule of Double Position; and an Italian writer of the 14th century usedmenoto indicate the subtraction of a number to which it was prefixed.

**POINT OF ACCUMULATION** is dated 1929 in MWCD10.

The term **POINT-SERIES GEOMETRY** was coined by E. A. Weiss [DSB,
article: "Reye"].

The term **POINT-SET TOPOLOGY** was coined by Robert Lee Moore (1882-1974),
according to the University of St. Andrews website.

The term **POISSON DISTRIBUTION** was coined in 1914 by H. E. Oper,
according to an Internet web page.

The term **POLAR** was introduced by Joseph-Diez Gergonne (1771-1859)
in its modern geometric sense in 1810 (Smith vol. I).

**POLAR COORDINATES.** According to Smith (vol. 2, page 324), "The
idea of polar coordinates seems due to Gregorio Fontana (1735-1803), and
the name was used by various Italian writers of the 18th century."

**POLE.** The term *pôle* (in projective geometry) was introduced
by François Joseph Servois (1768-1847) in 1811 (Smith vol. 2, page 334).
It was introduced in his first contribution to Gergonne's *Annales de
mathématiques pures et appliquées* (DSB).

**POLYGON** appears in the first English translation of Euclid, by
Sir Henry Billingsley (1570), folio 125. In an addition after Euclid IV.16,
which Billingsley ascribes to Flussates (François de Foix, Bishop of Aire),
he mentions "Poligonon figures;" and in a marginal note explains "A Poligonon
figure is a figure consisting of many sides." The word was used in classical
Greek. Euclid, however, preferred "polypleuron," designating many sides
rather than many vertices (Ken Pledger).

**POLYGONAL NUMBERS** were defined by Hypsicles (DSB).

The term **POLYHEDRON** was used by Euclid without a proper definition,
just as he used "parallelogram." In I.33 he constructs a parallelogram
without naming it; and in I.34 he first refers to a "parallelogrammic (parallel-lined)
area," then in the proof shortens it to "parallelogram." In a similar way,
XII.17 uses "polyhedron" as a descriptive expression for a solid with many
faces, then more or less adopts it as a technical term.

In English, *polyhedron* is found in 1570 in Sir Henry Billingsley's
translation of Euclid XII.17. Early in the proof (folio 377) Billingsley
amplifies it to "...a Polyhedron, or a solide of many sides,..." [Ken Pledger].

According to Smith (vol. 2, page 295), "The word 'polyhedron' is not
found in the *Elements* of Euclid; he uses 'solid,' 'octahedron,'
and 'dodecahedron,' but does not mention the general solid bounded by planes."

**POLYNOMIAL** was used by François Viéta (1540-1603) (Cajori 1919,
page 139). The word is found in English in 1674 in *Arithmetic* by
Samuel Jeake (1623-1690): "Those knit together by both Signs are called...by
some Multinomials, or Polynomials, that is, many named" (OED2). [According
to *An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language* (1879-1882),
by Rev. Walter Skeat, *polynomial* is "an ill-formed word, due to
the use of binomial. It should rather have been *polynominal,* and
even then would be a hybrid word."]

The term **POLYOMINO** was coined by Solomon W. Golomb in 1954 (Schwartzman,
p. 169).

The term **POLYSTAR** was coined by Richard L. Francis in 1988 (Schwartzman,
p. 169).

The word **POLYTOPE** (for a four dimensional convex solid) was introduced
by Alicia Boole Stott (1860-1940), according to the University of St. Andrews
website.

**PONS ASINORUM** usually refers to Proposition 5 of Book I of Euclid.
From Smith vol. 2, page 284:

The proposition represented substantially the limit of instruction in many courses in the Middle Ages. It formed a bridge across which fools could not hope to pass, and was therefore known as theThe proposition was also calledpons asinorum,or bridge of fools. It has also been suggested that the figure given by Euclid resembles the simplest form of a truss bridge, one that even a fool could make. The name seems to be medieval.

According to Smith, *pons asinorum* has also been used to refer
to the Pythagorean theorem.

**POSET,** an abbreviation of "partially ordered set", is due to
Garret Birkhoff (1911-1996), as said by himself in the second edition (1948,
p. 1) of his book *Lattice Theory*. The term is now firmly established
[Carlos César de Araújo].

**POSITIONAL NOTATION** is dated 1941 in MWCD10.

**POSITIVE.** In the 15th century the names "positive" and "affirmative"
were used to indicate positive numbers (Smith vol. 2, page 259).

Cardano (1545) called positive numbers *numeri ueri* or *ueri
numeri* (Smith vol. 2, page 259).

Napier (c. 1600) used the adjective *abundantes* to designate positive
numbers (Smith vol. 2, page 260).

*Positive* is found in English in the phrase "the Affirmative or
Positive Sign +" in 1704 in *Lexicon technicum, or an universal English
dictionary of arts and sciences* by John Harris.

**POSTFIX (notation)** is found in D. Wood, "A proof of Hamblin's
algorithm for translation of arithmetic expressions from infix to postfix
form," *BIT, Nordisk Tidskr. Inform.-Behandl.* 9 (1969).

**POSTULATE** appears in the early translations of Euclid and was
commonly used by the medieval Latin writers (Smith vol. 2, page 280).

In English, *postulate* is found in 1646 in *Pseudodoxia epidemica
or enquiries into very many eceived tenents* by Sir Thomas Browne in
the phrase "the postulate of Euclide" (OED2).

The term **POTENTIAL** was introduced by George Green (1793-1841)
in 1828 in *Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the
Theory of Electricity and Magnetism* (*Encyclopaedia Britannica,*
article: "Green").

The term **POTENTIAL FUNCTION** was used by Daniel Bernoulli in 1738
in *Hydrodynamica* (Kline, page 524).

**POWER** appears in English in 1570 in Sir Henry Billingsley's translation
of Euclid's *Elements*: "The power of a line, is the square of the
same line."

**POWER** (in set theory) was coined by Georg Cantor (1845-1918)
(Katz, page 734). He used the German word *Machtigkeit.*

The expression **POWER OF A POINT WITH RESPECT TO A CIRCLE** was
coined (in German) by Jacob Steiner (Julio González Cabillón).

**PRECALCULUS** (an adjective) is dated 1964 in MWCD10.

**PREDICATE CALCULUS** occurs in G. Kreisel, "Note on arithmetic
models for consistent formulae of the predicate calculus," *Fundam. Math.*
37 (1950).

**PREFIX (notation)** is found in S. Gorn, "An axiomatic approach
to prefix languages," *Symbol. Languages in Data Processing, Proc. Sympos.,*
March. 26-31, 1962, 1-21 (1962).

**PRIMALITY** is dated 1919 in MWCD10.

The term **PRIME NUMBER** was apparently used by Pythagoras.

Iamblichus writes that Thymaridas called a prime number *rectilinear*
since it can only be represented one-dimensionally.

In English *prime number* is found in Sir Henry Billingsley's 1570
translation of Euclid's *Elements* (OED2).

**PRIME NUMBER THEOREM.** Edmund Georg Herman Landau (1877-1938)
used the term *Primzahlsatz* (Cajori 1919, page 439).

The term **PRIMITIVE ROOT** was introduced by Leonhard Euler (1707-1783),
according to Dickson, page 181.

The term **PRINCIPAL GROUP** was introduced by Felix Klein (1849-1925)
(Katz, page 791).

The term **PRINCIPLE OF CONTINUITY** was coined by Poncelet (Kline,
page 843).

**PRISM** is found in Sir Henry Billingsley's 1570 translation of
Euclid's *Elements* (OED2).

**PRISMATOID** (as a geometric figure) occurs in the title *Das
Prismatoid,* by Th. Wittstein (Hannover, 1860) [Tom Foregger].

**PROBABILISTIC** is found in Tosio Kitagawa, Sigeru Huruya, and
Takesi Yazima, *The probabilistic analysis of the time-series of rare
event,* Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyusyu Univ., Ser. A 2 (1942).

The term **PROBABILITY** may appear in Latin in *De Ratiociniis
in Ludo Aleae* (1657) by Christiaan Huygens, since the 1714 English
translation has:

As, if any one shou'd lay that he wou'd throw the Number 6 with a single die the first throw, it is indeed uncertain whether he will win or lose; but how much more probability there is that he shou'd lose than win, is easily determin'd, and easily calculated.and

TO resolve which, we must observe, First, That there are six several Throws upon one Die, which all have an equal probability of coming up.The first citation for

Pascal did not use the term (DSB).

**PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTION.** In J. V. Uspensky, *Introduction
to Mathematical Probability* (1937), page 264 reads "The case of continuous
F(t), having a continuous derivative f(t) (save for a finite set of points
of discontinuity), corresponds to a continuous variable distributed with
the density f(t), since F(t) = integral from -infinity to t f(x)dx" [James
A. Landau].

*Probability density function* appears in 1946 in an English translation
of *Mathematical Methods of Statistics* by Harald Cramér. The original
appeared in Swedish in 1945 [James A. Landau].

**PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION** appears in a paper published by Sir
Ronald Aylmer Fisher in 1920 [James A. Landau].

The term **PROBABLE PRIME TO BASE a** was suggested by John
Brillhart [Carl Pomerance et al.,

**PROGRESSION.** Boethius (c. 510), like the other Latin writers,
used the word *progressio* (Smith vol. 2, page 496).

**PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY** is found in English in 1885 in Charles Leudesdorf's
translation of *Cremona's Elements of Projective Geometry* (OED2).

**PROPORTION** appears in the title *Algorismus proportionum*
by Nicole Oresme (ca. 1323-1382). He called powers of ratios *proportiones*
(Cajori vol. 1, page 91). *Proportion* was used in English in the
sense of "ratio" in 1570 by John Dee in the Preface to Billingsley's translation
of Euclid.

**PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS** occurs in 1903 in *Principia Mathematica*
by Bertrand Russell (OED2).

**PSEUDO-PARALLEL** was apparently coined by Eduard Study (1862-1930)
in 1906 *Ueber Nicht-Euklidische und Linien Geometrie.*

The term **PSEUDOPRIME** appears in Paul Erdös, "On pseudoprimes
and Carmichael numbers," *Publ. Math.,* 4, 201-206 (1956).

The term was also used by Ivan Niven (1915-1999) in "The Concept of
Number," in *Insights into Modern Mathematics,* 23rd Yearbook, NCTM,
Washington (1957), according to Kramer (p. 500). She seems to imply Niven
coined the term.

**PSEUDOSPHERE.** Kramer (p. 53) and the DSB imply this term was
coined by Eugenio Beltrami (1835-1900).

**PURE IMAGINARY** is found in 1881 in *Elements of Algebra*
by G. A. Wentworth: "When *a* is zero, the root is a pure imaginary."
The term may appear in the 1876 edition of *An Elementary Treatise on
Elliptic Functions* by Arthur Cayley, which has not been consulted;
it does, however, appear in the 1961 Dover "corrected republication" of
the 1895 edition of that work [James A. Landau].

**PYRAMID.** According to Smith (vol. 2, page 292), "the Greeks probably
obtained the word 'pyramid' from the Egyptian. It appears, for example,
in the Ahmes Papyrus (c. 1550 B. C.). Because of the pyramidal form of
a flame the word was thought by medieval and Renaissance writers to come
from the Greek word for fire, and so a pyramid was occasionally called
a 'fire-shaped body.'"

**PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM.** Apollodorus, Cicero, Proclus, Plutarch,
Athenaeus, and other writers referred to this proposition as a discovery
of Pythagoras, according to Heath's edition of Euclid's *Elements.*

The term *Pythagorean theorem* appears in English in 1743 in *A
New Mathematical Dictionary,* 2nd ed., by Edmund Stone.

Pythagorean theorem, is the 47th Prop. of the first Book of Euclid.This citation was provided by John G. Fauvel, who suggests the term may also be contained in the first edition of 1726, but he does not have a copy of that edition.

Some early twentieth-century U. S. dictionaries have *Pythagorean
proposition,* rather than *Pythagorean theorem.*

[Randy K. Schwartz contributed to this entry.]