早期數學字彙的歷史 (Z)

Last revision: July 9, 1999


The term z-STATISTIC was introduced by R. A. Fisher in "On a distribution yielding the error functions of several well-known statistics," Proceedings of the International Mathematics Congress, Toronto, (1924) [James A. Landau].

ZERMELO-FRAENKEL SET THEORY is found in the title "Ein axiomatisches System der Mengenlehre nach Zermelo und Fraenkel," by Ernst-Jochen Thiele, Z. Math. Logik Grundlagen Math. (1955).

The term is also found in R. Montague, "Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory is not a finite extension of Zermelo set theory," Bull. Amer Math. Soc. 62 (1956).

Attributions to Zermelo occur in A. Fraenkel, "Zu den Grundlagen der Cantor-Zermeloschen Mengenlehre," Math. Annalen (1922) and "鈁er die Zermelosche Begrndung der Mengenlehre," Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung 30, 2nd section (1921) [James A. Landau].

ZERO. The Hindus called the symbol sunya, and the term passed over into Arabic as as-sifr or sifr (Smith vol. 2, page 71).

Abraham ben Meir ibn Ezra (1092-1167) used galgal for zero in a description he wrote of a decimal system of numeration.

Leonardo of Pisa (1180-1250) (or Fibonacci) used the word zephirum for this symbol in Liber Abaci: "...quod arabice zephirum appelatur."

According to Smith (vol. 2), some other old names for zero include sipos, tsiphron, tziphra, rota, omicron, circulus, theca, null, zeuero, ceuero, cifra, zepiro and figura nihili.

According to Cajori (1919, page 128), the word zero "is found in some fourteenth century manuscripts."

Cajori also states that the first printed treatise containing the word zero is De arithmetrica opusculum, by Filippo Calandri, which was printed in Florence in 1491. Cajori attributes this information to Enestr闣. [Calandri's name is also spelled Philippus Calender and Philippus Calandrus.]

The earliest citation for zero in English in the OED2 is from 1604: "...marking the dayes with a Zero or cipher."

Older terms for this symbol in English include aught, naught, and cipher.

The term ZETAIC MULTIPLICATION was coined by James Joseph Sylvester.

ZORN's LEMMA. Gregory Moore, in his definitive book Zermelo's Axiom of Choice: Its Origins, Development and Influence, says, "By late in 1934, Zorn's principle had found users in the United States who dubbed it Zorn's Lemma." [Bill Dubuque] Julio Gonz嫮ez Cabill鏮 believes the term may have been coined by John W. Tukey.


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